Volume 3 Issue 3 2023

Renewable Energy Powered Water Supply System in Uganda: A Critical Review

Val Hyginus Udoka Eze1, *, Chikadibia Kalu Awa Uche2, Okafor O. Wisdom3, Enerst Edozie4, Ugwu Chinyere N5. and Ogenyi Fabian Chukwudi6

1,4Department of Electrical, Telecommunication and Computer Engineering, Kampala International University, Uganda.

2Department of Civil Engineering, Kampala International University, Uganda.

1,5,6Department of Publication and Extension, Kampala International University, Uganda

3Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, England

*Corresponding Author, E-mail:


Renewable energy powered water supply system is very essential and important to be adopted in Uganda as a means of pumping water because of its harmless, free gift of nature, user-friendly and durability. Solar water pumping system is the most economic and user friendly pumping system that can effective and efficient used in pumping water. The battery-coupled solar water pump is the most suitable for pumping water because of its ability to supply water efficiently even when there is low power conversion efficiency. Battery-coupled solar water pump has the ability to work effectively during low irradiance because of the backup battery incorporated in the system to supply water to the reservoir when solar conversion energy is insufficient to supply the required amount of energy that can pump the water. The Battery-coupled solar water pump is highly recommended to be used in Uganda for supplying clean and safe water to their citizens as solar energy powered pump is durable, easy to maintain, user-friendly and harmless to the health.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, solar pump, water, solar Photovoltaics and Uganda


Urbanization, migration and rapid increase in Ugandan population have drastically increased the demand for clean and safe water in Uganda according to the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Environment. A source of energy to pump water is also a notable problem in developing countries like Uganda. The cost of running diesel to meetup with the water demand of 48,582,334 population of Uganda as of 2023 will be so expensive and exorbitant to spend. The use of renewable energy sources as an alternative method of steady water supply at low cost in developing countries should be their utmost desire.  This can also be encouraged because the cost of purchasing and installing of renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV) pumps is cheaper, user friendly, easy to maintain than other conventional energy sources of water pump [1]. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) sources of renewable energy has been identified and adopted as one of the fastest renewable energy that will dominate in terms of energy generation in the future. This is because of its clean, free gift in nature, ease of maintenance and user friendly. These economic and health importance made PV energy sources attractive for many applications, especially in rural and remote areas of most of the developing countries like Uganda. Solar photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems have been recommended as an alternative/suitable sources of energy supply for areas with inadequate electricity in poor countries with a high solar irradiance. Solar photovoltaic water pumping systems can provide water for domestic and farming purposes without the need for any kind of fuel or the extensive maintenance required by diesel pumps. They are easy to install and operate, highly reliable, durable and user friendly, produces clean and safe energy which can be installed at the site of use as standalone or building integrated rendering long pipelines unnecessary [2].  The output of solar power system varies throughout the day with respect to changes in weather conditions or partial shading of the panel. A properly and a well-designed solar pumping system will be efficient, simple and reliable and has the ability to work effectively for a very long time without maintenance. Solar powered pumping systems serves many purposes such as Town-city water supply, livestock watering, irrigation and so on. The Ugandan government is currently implementing a solar PV electrification of schools and other institutions in selected districts which are remote from the national grid as part of a national strategy to enhance the contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy supply. In 2009 about 150 public institutions in Uganda were powered with 360 kW of PV electricity whereas the total capacity of the overall solar PV installations in rural areas of Uganda amounts to 6 MW. Despite this success, the percentage contribution of solar energy to the total energy mix is insignificant (less than 1%). Studies sponsored by Ministry of Energy have shown that Uganda holds tremendous potential in solar energy but only a small potion has been tapped.


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CITE AS: Val Hyginus Udoka Eze , Chikadibia Kalu Awa Uche, Okafor O. Wisdom, Enerst Edozie, Ugwu Chinyere N. and Ogenyi Fabian Chukwudi (2023). Renewable Energy Powered Water Supply System in Uganda: A Critical Review. NEWPORT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC AND EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCES (NIJSES) 3(3):140-147.