Effect of Environmental Dust Pollution (Particulate Matter of Sawdust) on the Histology of the Lungs and Hematological Parameters of Adult Wistar Rats

Omigie M.I., Iyawe V.I. and Aihie E.O.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author’s E-mail: Magdalene.omigie@uniben.edu

Saw dusts are derived from wood during the sawing of logs of timber into small sizes, as a small irregular chips or small piece which falls from the cutting edges of the saw blade to the floor during sawing operation, therefore its name. Sawdust is low in density, high in porosity, high in water retention, low in water drainage, high in bacteria forbearance, and has biodegradability at a moderate rate. Saw dust consists of hundreds of compounds such as heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, antimony, etc.) because it is an organic dust of vegetable derivative and suspended particulate matters that can affect lung development in children and teenagers negatively. This study was done to investigate the effect of environmental dust pollution (particulate matter of sawdust) on Hematological indices and Histology of the lungs of rats. 30 Adult Wistar rats were used for this study. They were grouped into two (exposed and unexposed) of fifteen rats each. The exposed group was placed in the sawmill for 3 months, while the unexposed placed distance away from the sawmill. Analysis carried out includes measurement of Particulate matter of dust and blood for hematological parameters. Statistical analysis was done using Graph pad prism, Version 5.0. The results were expressed as mean ±SEM and P< 0.05 was considered significant. Experimental site: Particulate matter (PM2.5) Average value = 2.290mg/m3 ±0.003, PM (10) Average value = 2.185mg/m3±0.04, Control site: (Pure water factory) PM2.5 Average value = 0.013mg/m3±0.0004, PM (10) Average value =0.145mg/m3±0.012. Estimation of neutrophil count were significantly lower (P<0.05) in exposed rats, while, Total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, monocytes, eosinophil, Red blood cell Count, mean cell haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume were significantly increased (P<0.05). Histopathological findings revealed obliterated alveoli spaces, thickened and hyperplasic alveolar wall, vascular congestion and infiltrates of inflammatory cells. In conclusion, sawdust readily pollute the environment, prolonged exposure to it does not only result in lung defect but caused changes in hematological indices mostly negative, as well as histopathological alterations typical of challenges in the immune system.
Keywords: Environmental, Dust Pollution, Sawdust, Histology, Lungs and Hematological Parameters

CITE AS: Omigie M.I., Iyawe V.I. and Aihie E.O. (2024). Effect of Environmental Dust Pollution (Particulate Matter of Sawdust) on the Histology of the Lungs and Hematological Parameters of Adult Wistar Rats. NEWPORT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MEDICAL SCIENCES, 5(2):34-47. https://doi.org/10.59298/NIJRMS/2024/5.2.03447