Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevention Method Utilization among Secondary School Students in Kamwenge District, Western Uganda

Karugaba Michael

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Kampala International University, Uganda.


The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains a global and national concern, and there is a need to focus on HIV prevention, especially in high-risk groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the factors influencing the utilization of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among selected secondary school students in Kamwenge District. The study involved 364 students from 6020 secondary schools, with data collected through questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS. The results showed that 68% of students utilized HIV/AIDS prevention methods, with 43.3% abstaining, 11.0% faithful, and 45.7% using condoms. 84.5% of participants had heard about HIV prevention methods, and 67.9% agreed that prevention methods protect against HIV/AIDS. 72.2% of participants used HIV/AIDS prevention methods, and 67.9% had good knowledge on the practice of these methods. Most students were males, older, and from rural areas, with a higher percentage of them being sexually active. Awareness and knowledge about protective methods affect their utilization of HIV/AIDS control methods. Overall, the study highlights the importance of addressing the global and national challenges of HIV/AIDS and promoting effective HIV prevention strategies among secondary school students.

Keywords: risk factors, HIV, AIDS, prevention


Health is one of the essential concerns in all population globally. A well-defined and efficient health system is a major determinant to achieving a healthy population or society. Like other countries in the world, Uganda faces many challenges in regard to its living conditions, health being one of them. Recognizing this fact, the current government has since its coming into power in 1986 created a need based and cost-effective health care system. In order to achieve this, the Ugandan government carried out a decentralization of the health sector to increase responsibility, accountability and participation on the lower level [1-7]. Globally, HIV/AIDS has been a complex socio-economic problem for the last four decades. Thus the fight against HIV/AIDS goes beyond deductive type conventional approach to self-empowered approach. That is, students should  have  the  experiences  to  re-evaluate  their  perception  in  terms  of  HIV/AIDS,  sexuality  and  career/life development. Indeed, the appraisal process builds their personal frame of references, meta-cognitions; self-concepts and these assist them to be determined to overcome challenges and adapt long lasting skills in behavioural skills. [8-14]. Moreover, premeditated responses against HIV/AIDS require sorting out high risk behavioral groups and that urges to address information, education, and communication. Besides, formal education and training, knowledge and attitudes could be scaled up by educational guidance and counseling for vulnerable groups such as students at schools, colleges, and universities. Thus, these findings call for urgency to launch inclusive packages to care for adolescents at their contexts [15-19].

In Uganda HIV/AIDS scourge being one of its key concerns, Uganda aid commission (UAC) was established by parliamentary statute No.2 of 1992 situating it under the office of the president. The UAC was established to oversee the coordination, monitoring, implementation and the evaluation of the HIV/AIDS activities in Uganda [1]. In 2002, presidential initiatives on AIDS strategy for communication to the youths (PIASCY) was established under ministry of health which was aimed at prevention of spread of HIV/AIDS and mitigate its impact on primary and post primary education institution in Uganda. This emphasized, abstinence from sex, being faithful to the partner and condom use [1, 20-23].Ugandan government together with some NGOs have over time put effort to combat HIV/AIDS scourge in Uganda through sensitization of the students/youth about HIV/AIDS prevention methods and has provided ART drugs to HIV victims, among others. These have led to the decrease of HIV/AIDS spread and prevalence [24-32].


  1. MoH, (2015). Annual health sector performance report. https://health.go.
  2. Obeagu EI, Alum EU, Obeagu GU. Factors associated with prevalence of HIV among youths: A review of Africa perspective. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN: 2814-3035. 2023 Jan 16;3(1):13-8.
  3. Obeagu EI, Okwuanaso CB, Edoho SH, Obeagu GU. Under-nutrition among HIV-exposed Uninfected Children: A Review of African Perspective. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN: 2814-3035.                 2022;2(3):120-7.
  4. Obeagu EI. A Review of Challenges and Coping Strategies Faced by HIV/AIDS Discordant Couples. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN: 2814-3035. 2023 Jan 1;3(1):7-12.
  5. Obeagu EI, Obeagu An update on premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer screening services among     HIV     positive     women.     J     Pub     Health     Nutri.      2023;    6     (2).     2023;141:1- 2.links/63e538ed64252375639dd0df/An-update-on-premalignant-cervical-lesions-and-cervical-cancer- screening-services-among-HIV-positive-women.pdf
  6. Omo-Emmanuel UK, Chinedum OK, Obeagu Evaluation of laboratory logistics management information system in HIV/AIDS comprehensive health facilities in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Int J Curr Res Med Sci.                            2017;3(1):21-38.                                             DOI:                    10.22192/ijcrms.2017.03.01.004 links/592b0a40458515e3d46c94b4/Evaluation-of-Laboratory-Logistics-Management-Information- System-in-HIV-AIDS-Comprehensive-Health-Facilities-in-Bayelsa-State-Nigeria.pdf
  7. Obeagu EI, Obeagu GU, Musiimenta E, Bot YS, Hassan Factors contributing to low utilization of HIV counseling and testing services. Int. J. Curr. Res. Med. Sci. 2023;9(2):1-5.DOI: 10.22192/ijcrms.2023.09.02.001 links/640219b257495059455fdd2e/Factors-contributing-to-low- utilization-of-HIV-counseling-and-testing-services.pdf.
  8. Tarekegn T. Gemeda, Abineh Gandile2and Demisse S. Bikamo, (2017). HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Dilla University Students, Ethiopia. African Journal of Reproductive Health September; 21 (3): 49-59
  9. Obeagu EI, Obeagu GU. An update on survival of people living with HIV in Nigeria. J Pub Health Nutri. 2022;  5   (6).   2022;129.   links/645b4bfcf3512f1cc5885784/An-update-on-survival-of-people-living-with- HIV-in-Nigeria.pdf.
  10. Obeagu EF, Onyenweaku FC, Nwobodo HA, Ochei KC, Ochiabuto Ogochukwu MT, Onwuasoanya Impact of HIV and hepatitis b virus coinfection on selected haematological markers of the patients in Umuahia, Abia                            State,         Nigeria.       Ann                  Clin           Lab           Res.          2017;5(2):175. links/592bb4990f7e9b9979a975cf/DETERMINATION-OF-HAEMATOCRIT-LEVEL-AND-IRON- PROFILE-STUDY-AMONG-PERSONS-LIVING-WITH-HIV-IN-UMUAHIA-ABIA-STATE- NIGERIA.pdf
  11. Obeagu EI, Eze VU, Alaeboh EA, Ochei Determination of haematocrit level and iron profile study among persons living with HIV in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. J BioInnovation. 2016;5:464-71. links/592bb4990f7e9b9979a975cf/DETERMINATION-OF-HAEMATOCRIT-LEVEL-AND-IRON- PROFILE-STUDY-AMONG-PERSONS-LIVING-WITH-HIV-IN-UMUAHIA-ABIA-STATE- NIGERIA.pdf.
  12. Offie DC, Obeagu EI, Akueshi C, Njab JE, Ekanem EE, Dike PN, Oguh DN. Facilitators and barriers to retention in HIV care among HIV infected MSM attending Community Health Center Yaba, Lagos Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2021;33(52B):10-9.
  13. Obeagu EI, Ogbonna US, Nwachukwu AC, Ochiabuto O, Enweani IB, Ezeoru VC. Prevalence of Malaria with Anaemia and HIV status in women of reproductive age in Onitsha, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2021 Feb 23;33(4):10-9.
  14. Odo M, Ochei KC, Obeagu EI, Barinaadaa A, Eteng UE, Ikpeme M, Bassey JO, Paul AO. TB Infection Control in TB/HIV Settings in Cross River State, Nigeria: Policy Vs Practice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2020 Sep 18;32(22):101-9.
  15. Ifeanyi OE, Obeagu GU. The values of prothrombin time among HIV positive patients in FMC owerri. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied 2015;4(4):911-6.
  16. Izuchukwu IF, Ozims SJ, Agu GC, Obeagu EI, Onu I, Amah H, Nwosu DC, Nwanjo HU, Edward A, Arunsi MO. Knowledge of preventive measures and management of HIV/AIDS victims among parents in Umuna Orlu community of Imo state Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2016;3(10):55-65.
  17. Chinedu K, Takim AE, Obeagu EI, Chinazor UD, Eloghosa O, Ojong OE, Odunze U. HIV and TB co- infection among patients who used Directly Observed Treatment Short-course centres in Yenagoa, IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci. 2017;12(4):70-5.
  18. Nwosu DC, Obeagu EI, Nkwocha BC, Nwanna CA, Nwanjo HU, Amadike JN, Elendu HN, Ofoedeme CN,Ozims SJ, Nwankpa P. Change in Lipid Peroxidation Marker (MDA) and Non enzymatic Antioxidants (VIT C & E) in HIV Seropositive Children in an Urban Community of Abia State. Nigeria. J. Bio. Innov. 2016;5(1):24-30.  links/5ae735e9a6fdcc5b33eb8d6a/CHANGE-IN-LIPID-PEROXIDATION-MARKER- MDAAND-NON-ENZYMATIC-ANTIOXIDANTS-VIT-C-E-IN-HIV-SEROPOSITIVE-CHILDREN- IN-AN-URBAN-COMMUNITY-OF-ABIA-STATE-NIGERIA.pdf
  19. Igwe CM, Obeagu IE, Ogbuabor Clinical characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS on ART in 2014 at tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria. J Pub Health Nutri. 2022; 5 (6). 2022;130. links/645a166f5762c95ac3817d32/Clinical-characteristics-of-people-living-with-HIV-AIDS-on-ART-in- 2014-at-tertiary-health-institutions-in-Enugu.pdf.
  20. Ifeanyi OE, Obeagu GU, Ijeoma FO, Chioma UI. The values of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) among HIV positive patients in FMC Owerri. Int J Curr Res Aca 2015;3:139-44.  et_al.IJCRAR.pdf.
  21. Obiomah CF, Obeagu EI, Ochei KC, Swem CA, Amachukwu Hematological indices o HIV seropositive subjects in Nnamdi Azikiwe University teaching hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi. Ann Clin Lab Res.  2018;6(1):1-4.      links/5aa2bb17a6fdccd544b7526e/Haematological-Indices-of-HIV-Seropositive- Subjects-at-Nnamdi-Azikiwe.pdf
  22. Omo-Emmanuel UK, Ochei KC, Osuala EO, Obeagu EI, Onwuasoanya Impact of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV on positivity rate in Kafanchan, Nigeria. Int. J. Curr. Res. Med. Sci. 2017;3(2):28-34. DOI: 10.22192/ijcrms.2017.03.02.005
  23. Obeagu EI, Amekpor F, Scott GY. An update of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Bleeding disorders. J  Pub  Health  Nutri.  2023;  6  (1).  2023;139.  links/645b4a6c2edb8e5f094d9bd9/An-update-of- human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-Bleeding.pdf.
  24. Obeagu EI, Scott GY, Amekpor F, Ofodile AC, Edoho SH, Ahamefula C. Prevention of New Cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Pragmatic Approaches of Saving Life in Developing Countries. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN: 2814-3035. 2022;2(3):128-34.
  25. Aizaz M, Abbas FA, Abbas A, Tabassum S, Obeagu Alarming rise in HIV cases in Pakistan: Challenges and future recommendations at hand. Health Science Reports. 2023;6(8):e1450.
  26. Walter O, Anaebo QB, Obeagu EI, Okoroiwu IL. Evaluation of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time and Prothrombin Time in HIV and TB Patients in Owerri Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2022 Jan 21:29-34.
  27. Odo M, Ochei KC, Obeagu EI, Barinaadaa A, Eteng EU, Ikpeme M, Bassey JO, Paul AO. Cascade variabilities in TB case finding among people living with HIV and the use of IPT: assessment in three levels of care in cross River State, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2020;32(24):9-18.
  28. Jakheng SP, Obeagu EI. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus based on demographic and risk factors among pregnant women attending clinics in Zaria Metropolis, J Pub Health Nutri. 2022; 5 (8). 2022;137.
  29. Obeagu EI, Ibeh NC, Nwobodo HA, Ochei KC, Iwegbulam CP. Haematological indices of malaria patients coinfected with HIV in Int. J. Curr. Res. Med. Sci. 2017;3(5):100-4.DOI; 10.22192/ijcrms.2017.03.05.014
  30. Oloro OH, Oke TO, Obeagu Evaluation of Coagulation Profile Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN: 2814-3035. 2022 Oct 16;2(3):110- 9.
  31. Viola N, Kimono E, Nuruh N, Obeagu Factors Hindering Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Service Uptake among HIV Positive Women at Comboni Hospital Kyamuhunga Bushenyi District. Asian Journal of Dental and Health Sciences. 2023;3(2):7-14.
  32. Ezugwu UM, Onyenekwe CC, Ukibe NR, Ahaneku JE, Onah CE, Obeagu EI, Emeje PI, Awalu JC, Igbokwe Use of ATP, GTP, ADP and AMP as an Index of Energy Utilization and Storage in HIV Infected Individuals at NAUTH, Nigeria: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Case-Controlled Study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2021;33(47A):78-84.
  33. Igwe MC, Obeagu EI, Ogbuabor AO, Eze GC, Ikpenwa JN, Eze-Steven Socio-Demographic Variables of People Living with HIV/AIDS Initiated on ART in 2014 at Tertiary Health Institution in Enugu State. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases. 2022;10(4):1-7.
  34. Nubed CK, Akoachere JFTK. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Fako Division, South West Region, 2016.
  35. Vincent CC, Obeagu EI, Agu IS, Ukeagu NC, Onyekachi-Chigbu Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV/AIDS in Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2021 Dec 14;33(57A):360-8.
  36. Igwe MC, Obeagu EI, Ogbuabor AO. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AND PREDICTORS OF ADHERENCE TO HEALTHCARE OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN TERTIARY HEALTH INSTITUTIONS IN ENUGU STATE. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN:2814-3035. 2022Sep 29;2(3):42- 57.
  37. Madekwe CC, Madekwe CC, Obeagu EI. Inequality of monitoring in Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Tuberculosis and Malaria: A Review. Madonna University journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ISSN: 2814-3035. 2022       Sep            24;2(3):6-15.
  38. HIV prevention.2017.
  39. Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu and Ugwu Okechukwu Paul-Chima (2023). Stigma Associated With  HIV/AIDS:  A  Review.  NEWPORT  INTERNATIONAL  JOURNAL  OF  PUBLIC HEALTH AND PHARMACY (NIJPP) 3(2):64-67.
  40. Esther Ugo Alum, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Okechukwu P. C. Ugwu, Patrick Maduabuchi Aja, and Michael Ben Okon (2023). HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Diseases; The Obnoxious NEWPORT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MEDICAL SCIENCES (NIJRMS) 3(2):95-99.
  41. Esther Ugo Alum, Okechukwu C. Ugwu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu and Michael Ben Okon (2023). Curtailing HIV/AIDS Spread: Impact of Religious Leaders. NEWPORT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MEDICAL SCIENCES (NIJRMS) 3(2): 28-31.
  42. Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Stella Malot, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu and Okechukwu Paul-Chima Ugwu (2023).HIV resistance in patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia. NEWPORT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC AND EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCES (NIJSES) 3 (2):56-59.

CITE AS: Karugaba Michael (2023). Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevention Method Utilization among Secondary School Students in Kamwenge District, Western Uganda. NEWPORT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MEDICAL SCIENCES 4(1):109-119